Monday, December 28, 2015

Discovering Shabaeff on a snowy post-Christmas Day.

Princess by Valentin Shabaeff.

The things you discover on a sleepy, snowy Christmas Monday as you watch, with one eye, Seven Brides for Seven Brothers on the Turner Classic Movie Channel.

I was staring around my 'family room,' that I am slowly turning into my office because the room gets a lot of sun in winter (when there is sun) and my eyes fell on the icon of the Virgin, or so I thought, on the wall.

'I think I'll move it upstairs,' I said to myself. "It's pretty, and it goes with the Christmas decorations up there."

I assumed it was a copy of something. I inherited the frame from my mother and she always referred to it as 'the Persian Girl.'

But, upon removing it from the wall, I noticed the piece was purchased at the Klinkoff Gallery on Sherbrooke, an important gallery, so I looked up the name of the artist, V Shabaeff to see that he is a well known artist.

Sort of.

A Quebec museum ran an exhibition of his work just last year called "Under the Radar."

Oh my god, they are talking about the Rape of the Sabine Women on TV.. singing about it. Hmm.

Anyway, Shabaeff was from Russia and moved to Montreal and lived a long time and had a studio in city.  So there are lots of his works out there, in all mediums.

He's the kind of guy the NFB would make a documentary about, in the old days, anyway.

Too bad I missed the exhibit. Reminds me of my college days when I had just read all of Joseph Campbell's books and then passed a poster in the "McGill Ghetto" promoting a talk he was giving at Concordia, to find the talk had been the night before!!

Byzantine.... that's what this ceramic looks like. No wonder.


Monday, December 21, 2015

Eugenics and Ignoring Ugly History in Montreal


I found a newsletter online that mentioned my name: the November, 2015 issue of a report the Montreal Council of Women sends around.

I was a little, how might I say, bemused.

The author alludes to my May, 2015 blog posts on Carrie Derick, the 1909-1912 President of the Montreal Local Council, saying I don't flatter the McGill geneticist. She goes on to say that she would have to go back in time to properly argue the issue and she doesn't have the time.

Seems to me, my posts about Derick are mentioned in the newsletter just to be dismissed.Why bother?

There's nothing to argue, anyway.  Carrie Derick was deeply into eugenics. The historical record makes it clear:The many public talks she gave on the subject were covered in the press of the day. After all, she was a professional geneticist and she knew all about pea-pods.

In December, 1917 she avoided the Montreal conscription controversies by going to Hamilton, Ontario to give a talk on heredity on behalf of the Montreal Suffrage Assocation, as a 'fundraiser.' At least, that was the rationale since eugenics had nothing to do with woman suffrage. Or did it?

The 1910 era Montreal Council minutes and, more especially, the National Council of Women minutes, go into ugly detail about the eugenics-tainted reforms these women hoped to achieve in the area of health and immigration. The bit below is from the Montreal Council Minutes suggests that morality and health got all mixed up in the minds of these social reformers.

A survey of 'defective immigrants' from the Herve Institute is telling. It is written that:
3 were epileptic,
2 were insane
38 were of low grade mentality
1 called "very queer"
1 termed 'simple'
1 had St Vitus Dance
7 were neurotic
4 paralyzed
1 a gambler
2 were beggars
1 had a drug habit
30 were illegitimate
27 were grossly immoral
3 criminal
9 had cancer.


While researching my future ebook Service and Disservice, about the involvement of the Montreal Suffragists in the Conscription Crisis, I found some very disturbing paragraphs in the Women's Century, the organ of the National Council, from the WWI period.

Shocking, really.

But, that's neither here  nor there. Eugenics was a trendy issue in 1910,  period, what with the unsettling demographic changes happening in North America.

The Protestant Evangelicals ran the show and they were racist. Hello! (Or, as Pierre Berton writes in Marching As to War, 'they wanted everyone to be just like them.')

Many upstanding public figures, most more illustrious that Derick, were adherents of the eugenics cause. She wasn't the only one spewing nonsense all over town about  the absurd  Jukes/Edwards study.

My general point is related to Montreal history: Derick was a very influential woman and her support of eugenics gave the movement moral authority in the city, in the entire country.

(Not in the province. French Canadians were very wary of the 'hygienist' movement, sometimes known as the purity movement.)

McGill, I have read, was 'eugenics central' in Canada. For this reason, there was less opposition to the theory in Canada than in the US and in Europe.

When Carrie Derick was fighting for the post of Chair of Botany at McGill in 1912 (explored in Furies Cross the Mersey) the Montreal Council passed a long resolution pointing out that Miss Derick was a popular speaker all across the country.

It would be extremely naive to think that Miss Derick was for birth control because she wanted women, married and unmarried, to explore their sexuality.

Flora Macdonald Denison of Toronto was more in that vein and she was a serious outlier - and an agnostic, to boot.

Derick wanted young women to have a chance to earn their own living, she was an equal rights suffragist for the most part, but she also wanted these ambitious young girls corraled in special women's hotels where they could lead 'respectable lives' ie. no men allowed.

(That's what Marion Nicholson, my husband's boffo grandmother, just hated about the Women's Y. TOO MANY RULES!)

Derick also wanted the feeble-minded controled and cared for, put on farms and kept out of the gene pool. She was Education Chair of the National Council. She was a strong and determined lady. Her policies became national education policy until at least WWII when eugenics fell out of favor for obvious reasons.

Still, in the 1960's, in my elementary school on Clanranald Street they hid the Down's Syndrome kids so effectively, we hardly saw them and when we did it was a huge shock, like a strange dream. It was all so hush, hush.

I find it quite amazing, that even during the WWI, when the Society Women of Canada were busy working for the patriotic cause, that the issue of control and containment of the feeble-minded was still very much an active concern with the women of the National Council.

Many of these women gave up the suffrage cause during the war, thinking that it just wasn't important enough in the time of great crisis, as they put it.

But eugenics stayed on the National Council agenda.

This is from the 1916 Women's Century Magazine. "It is an old saying, that prevention is better than the cure and in the case of feeblemindedness, the fact is brought home forcibly. Until proper preventative mesures are taken, we will always have the difficult problem before us. It is all well to provide institutions, but why let the birth of idiots and criminals go on?"

I feel that people who deny that Derick was into eugenics and had beliefs that are not acceptable today, in the modern Western world,  are doing a real disservice to the memory of Miss Derick and the many other worthy women pioneers in Canadian and World history.

After all, that's what most historians, English and French, have done up until now: they've written Derick off as not worthy of historical mention because of her support of this controversial issue.

Derick claimed at the 1912 National Council of Women AGM that at least 50 percent of prostitutes were 'feeble-minded." Flora Macdonald Denison disagreed, saying the issue was economic.

Derick was quoted in the press as saying "Laws are for bad people: good people don't need laws."

During WWI she was all for Conscription, but preferred to call it 'mandatory overseas service.' After the war she gave lectures claiming all wars are about economics.

In retrospect,  Miss Derick said a lot of smart things and a lot of silly things, some things that she meant and some things that she didn't mean. In this respect, she was just  like her fellow male movers-and-shakers, very cagey.

As it happens, most historicans have written off Flora Macdonald Denison, the Toronto suffragist, just because of her spiritualist leanings.  (Flora wasn't cagey. She just spoke her mind.)

But there have been many illustrious men with similar quirky beliefs - and bios of these men pour out of the universities.

 (Derick, I might add, was a strong supporter of the Jews in the Protestant system, when many people, including many elite and influential clergymen, were not. She admired this community's work-ethic and respect for the education process.)

Here's something from the Montreal Council Minutes, 1913.


Re: Feeblemindedness. LCW.. Dr. Colm Russel

1)      To obtain a more efficient inspection of immigrants
2)      Taking of census in Protestant Schools
3)      Compulsory education
4)      Apply psych juvenile courts


To educate the public in regard to the huge cost to the Dominion of mental defectives, insanity and its relation to crime and vice.

A

Wednesday, December 9, 2015

Printer Ink, Banks, and Wartime Propaganda

A Roman design of Apollo.  I could  print it out and put it on the wall, if I had any colour ink!

Gosh. A warm December but little sun. Not much of  a trade-off. What dollars I save in heating, I lose in SAD lighting.

Printers make me crazy, and not only at this bleak time of the year.

 Well, they make everyone crazy, I'm told.

When they work, they are nothing short of miraculous; I can print out a beautiful Byzantine fresco  or Pompeian mural, just for my fun and scotch tape it to the wall, just for my pleasure.

(OK. It costs about 10.00 for the ink, each time.)

But, it you decide to be cautious using said expensive colour inkjet ink, the stuff just dries up over time and you've wasted 80 dollars.

I don't use coloured ink anymore.

And, then, of course, the printer stops working for no particular reason, just when you need to print out your latest draft of your latest book, when you are on a roll with everything clear in your head, except you need to edit the draft on a hard copy, without a bright light behind the words making you stupid.

(I once read that's what backlighting does. It makes the critical thinking parts of your brain shut off.)

 You tell your husband (who is the de-facto techie in the house) "I preferred it back in the 1990's, when the printer was totally reliable, except for continual paper jams, before you hooked it to the stupid network."

Anyway, the draft I am working on right now is from my  book Service and Disservice - about the iffy involvement of the Canadian suffragists in the  1917 Conscription Crisis.

It's a follow up to Furies Cross the Mersey, about the British Invasion of Suffragettes to Canada in 1911/1912.

An article in the Ottawa newspaper about a certain Suffrage Tramp from NY to Washington in 1913. No surprise, some young suffragettes  in Montreal tried to organize their own Tramp to Ottawa. Did that ever scare the reform-minded suffragists of Montreal, who quickly started their own organization, the Montreal Suffrage Association, that no one could join unless approved by the executive made up mostly of McGill professors and leading Presbyterian clergymen and millionaire's wives.

I am working on something no one will read. Well.

I told this to a friend who works high up in marketing at a big bank and he said, "I write stuff no one reads, too. "

Yes, but he gets paid big moolah for it.

I found this on my website yesterday and was happy. I'd forgotten about it.


It's my facsimile  of a poster that the Montreal Suffrage Association stuck up in the Edinburgh cafe on Ste. Catherine Street during WWI.

Unlike Constance Hamilton, the President of the Toronto-based National Equal Franchise Union, Carrie Derick, President of the MSA,  did not give up the suffrage fight for patriotic work during the war.

She did both war work and suffrage advocacy. And she worked at her job in the Botany Department at McGill University. The woman was super-energetic.

Indeed, in 1917, May, 1917, when Premier Borden in Ottawa hinted in the Press that he would give ALL Canadian women the vote in the next election, Derick tried to organize all the suffragists of Canada to go to Ottawa to make sure he did just that.

There were people who thought that Borden was obligated to give  the vote only to women who could already vote provincially.

Quebec women didn't have the vote provincially. Ontario women had just won the right in February.

Carrie Derick invited Constance Hamilton's NEFU to join them. The NEFU declined, saying this wasn't the right time to ask for votes for women.

It didn't matter because Borden officially promised the vote to ALL Canadian women in late May, 1917 - and, then , he took it all back.

His office had had intelligence from out West; intelligence suggesting women voters out there would not support his government and his Conscription Bill.

Later, in early August, 1917, Premier Borden consulted with Mrs. Hamilton and Mrs. Torrington of the National Council of Women and a Mrs. Gooderham of IODE and asked these ladies to see if this was, indeed, true. He wanted them to ask their nation-wide members, point-blank, whether he'd win an election if he gave women the vote.

He told them to ask only respectable ladies and be discreet about it.

The answer came back NO.

So Borden's Union Government (made up of Conservatives and Liberals who were for Conscription) ended up giving the vote only to women with close relations at the Front, rigging the 1917 Election, and mocking the very democratic principles suffragists stood for.

Most women in Quebec didn't get to vote.

And here's what I discovered.

In July, 1913, Mrs. Constance Hamilton had called an emergency meeting of the NEFU in her home (even though she hadn't been doing anything as President for years) and what she said was quoted the next day in the Press.

Don't have an election. It's not fair that women  slackers out West and in Quebec get to vote and the soldiers  in the trenches don't. (I paraphrase.)

So, Constance Hamilton, soft suffragist leader of the upstart NEFU,  was the person who gave Premier Borden (or Arthur Meighen, his right hand man) the moral authority to pass this Wartime Elections Act, where only a certain group of women got to vote.

"All the women of Canada support the measure," Borden would soon say to the Press.

In that same July newspaper item, it is reported that the Montreal Suffrage Association ('which represents a large body of women throughout the Province of Quebec') couldn't send a delegate to this NEFU meeting, but, they sent this message:

"We heartily support the policy of the Borden Government for a Union Government to enforce conscription and to ensure vigorous prosecution of the war but we regret a General Election during the war. Is Canada going to fail? Never! If we break faith with those who die 'They will not sleep though poppies grow in Flanders Field.' Canada's honor is at stake, she must not fail to carry on to break faith with our brave fighting men and glorious dead."

This message was a plant to make it look like Quebec would be on board with limited suffrage!

There's not a chance in Hell that Carrie Derick approved a message like that.

The MSA held no meetings July, 1917.  And no way would the MSA want anything they said quoted in a news item with the word 'slackers' in it.

The MSA's resolutions were always very carefully worded, whether they were about Pankhurst style militancy: ("the MSA is neither militant nor non-militant for that label is irrelevant in Canada.")
or conscription: ("The MSA never claimed to be for Conscription, just warmly in favor of  mandatory overseas service.")

I suspect Frances Fenwick Williams, a fanatical win-the-war type on the executive of the MSA, wrote that emotional paragraph. She was a poet, you see.

As it happens, the MSA, led by Derick, sent a resolution to Borden in September, protesting the Wartime Elections Act and this ploy of limited women suffrage.

Borden wrote a crazy letter back: "You don't understand the situation I am in. Would you want women who had only been in Canada a few months to vote?" He was alluding to western 'alien' women.. He didn't mention Quebec, of course, not in this letter. He  certainly didn't mention slacker women or slacker men.



Anyway, I think I'll start my book with this WAR poster .



Tuesday, December 8, 2015

The 100 Greatest British Novels and Boning up on Canadian History

Hmm. I don't usually get views from those countries: I wonder who is boning up on Canadian history by reading about the Nicholson Family of Richmond, Quebec in the Edwardian Era and during WWI.

My recent posts have been about my e-book, Service and Disservice, about the iffy involvement of the Canadian suffragists in the 1917 Conscription Crisis.

As it happens, I'm having a lot of  trouble writing, with flow and style, my chapter on Mrs. Constance Hamilton, the Toronto social reformer and soft suffragist.

Usually, when I can't write, it means I need to read. I need to water the plants, as it were.

So, yesterday, I downloaded a few prize-winning novels from recent lists. One from the Man-Booker shortlist, one from the Giller shortlist and one recommended by the NY Times Review of Books.

All short novels, apparently. I read a few chapters of each and got about 25 percent of the way through each of them.

Which brings me to Middlemarch. Not a short novel.

Well, this morning the Guardian has published yet another list of the 100 Greatest British Books- this time compiled by 'book-writers' from around the world - and Middlemarch is No. 1.

Edith Nicholson, circa 1910 and her copy of Middlemarch in my house. Green book at left.


Middlemarch was Edith Nicholson's favorite book. I have her copy (in two volumes) from 1880 ish, I think.

She was given the book in the 1930's. There's an inscription.

Middlemarch is NOT my favorite book, even if the lead character and I share the same name.

I have tried, but I have never been able to finish the thing. This past summer I listened to a  French audio version on litteratureaudio.com and, once again, only got half through.

No. 2 on the list is, perhaps, my favorite novel, To the Lighthouse. (It was turned into a fairly lousy film, though, with Kenneth Branagh.)

Atonement is on the list, but the novel it pays homage to, the Go-Between, isn't. I love the Go-Between, almost as much as To the Lighthouse.

The Go-Between was made into a superb film, with Julie Christie.

Atonement was made into a good film, too.

Bleak House in on the list at number 6. I had to read it in high school. A previous student had written Bleak Book on my copy, over the what'sitcalled, the scrunched pages of the closed book.

I'm happy to see Small Island on the list. That novel is one of my favorite reads of the past decade. I haven't yet seen the TV serial with Benedict Cumberbatch. I can't find it on Youtube :)

NW, Zadie Smith's newer novel, is also on the list and also on my old-style 400 dollar Kindle. I debated whether to read it first before downloading the other 3 ebooks yesterday.

(One of these e-books has typo issues. I don't have to feel so bad about my ebooks on Amazon then. Threshold Girl, Diary of a Confirmed Spinster, Furies Cross the Mersey, all about Canada in 1910, the Laurier Era, where we were debating the immigration issue.)

Waugh's Scoop is on the list, but not Brideshead Revisited. Iris Murdoch's the Sea the Sea is on the list. I was reading that novel and really enjoying it while watching Brideshead on the TV, years ago in the 1980's.


I recall that the sumptuous, seductive TV production of Brideshead Revisited made the Sea the Sea seem less compelling in comparison.  What a TV show! (It's usually the other way around, right? Great books usually outshine television and movie versions.)

 I read Brideshead Revisited for the first time shortly thereafter and have read it a number of times since.

I even recommended it to my book club, with the Go-Between and Small Island.

And, I watched the entire show on DVD just a few months ago.


Sunday, December 6, 2015

Sacrificing Democracy and Men, for Democracy's Sake?

Constance Hamilton, Augusta Stowe Gullen and Flora Macdonald Denison at the Washington Suffrage Parade 1913. Hamilton, a social reform suffragist, was plotting to take over the Canadian movement at this time from the more established equal rights suffragists.

Here follows a bit from a letter-to-the-editor written in September, 1917 by elite Torontonian Constance Hamilton, President of the National Equal Franchise Union.

It's a letter supporting Premier Borden's Wartime Elections Act that gave the vote only to women who had close relations at the WWI Front, rigging the upcoming election in his favor so that he could pass a contentious Conscription Bill.

I'm writing a book Service and Disservice, about the iffy involvement of the Canadians suffragists in this infamous Conscription Election.

Constance Hamilton was a Yorkshire-born Toronto social reformer who only adopted the woman suffrage cause late in life, in 1912. 

That year, she waged war with the long-time pioneer equal rights suffragists of the 30 year old Toronto-based Canadian Suffrage Association, Augusta Stowe-Gullen, Dr. Margaret Gordon, and Flora Macdonald Denison, stealing half of their members, about 1,000, and starting up the Toronto-based National Equal Franchise Union.

When war broke out Hamilton soon proclaimed, in all the papers, that she was giving up the suffrage fight for 'patriotic work' (while staying on as NEFU President). 

In 1917, with conscription a hot-button issue in the country, especially in Quebec, Hamilton exploited her post as NEFU President, claiming in letters and articles and Win-the-War speeches that "All Canadian suffragists support the Wartime Elections Act."

This irked some other prominent Canadian suffragists, including pacifist Dr. Margaret Gordon of the Canadian Suffrage Association, who called the Act a "Disenfranchisement Act," and the highly-principled Dr. Grace Ritchie England of the Montreal Local Council of Women, who stumped for Sir Wilfrid Laurier during the election, and suffered severe censure for it.

It also irked many members of her own NEFU organization. 

But, by Hamilton saying so, Borden could then, in turn, say 'the women of Canada support the act."

And today's Wikipedia page on the Wartime Elections Act can say the same thing, even if it is wrong. So it goes.

Constance Hamilton. Politics over Principles. 

Nelly McClung, who was in Edmonton in 1917, usually gets the credit for giving Arthur Meighen the idea of limited woman suffrage for the 1917 election, sometime in the Spring.

I believe I have good evidence it was Constance Hamilton who conspired with him much more closely. 

Hamilton was the convenor of the Immigration Committee of the National Council of Women, having lived in Vancouver and Winnipeg, where her husband had worked as a town surveyor.

She had contacts out West. 

Hamilton went on to become the first female alderman in Toronto. 

Here's her letter, shortened. It all sounds so familiar, doesn't it? Making a mockery of democracy to preserve democracy.

This bit of history has been ignored, because it's embarrassing and because it is women's history. (I think.) I've only found one article, in an obscure 1970's feminist journal, covering this story.

.....The Wartime Elections Act, as explained by Mr. Meighen, is a war measure, pure and simple. 

It is a measure which will enfranchise the women of obvious loyalty, while the many good loyal women not possessing male relatives of military age may console themselves in knowing that they have not been called upon to sacrifice loved ones and by the knowledge of their own temporary sacrifice of the privilege of citizenship they prevent the women slackers from voting. 

It has been said that suppose the women of Quebec and the foreign women voted against conscription, they would only double the vote of their men. 

True, but they would also double the chance of an anti-conscription majority in the House of Commons, and seeing that the pursuance and winning of the war is the main business before the country, it is for the country to take such steps as to assure the election of a win the war government.


The women of Canada, while they feel deeply of the principle of democracy, will yet be conscientious of the greater principle of sacrifice and service. 

And may be willing to forego a right today so that others may have a fuller freedom and they know that whomever would save his own life, be it practical or otherwise, must first be willing to lay it down.....

Saturday, December 5, 2015

"Over the Top" for Suffrage: the Canadian Suffrage Association and the Wartime Elections Act of 1917

Canadian Suffragists, all from Ontario, marching in a March 1913 Suffrage Parade in Washington DC. Stowe Gullen in the motar board. Constance Hamilton was there, too.  She would soon start her own national suffrage movement, the National Equal Franchise Union, but she would give up the suffrage fight within a year. Hence, the report below, by the Canadian Suffrage Association, trying to cement their place in history as the one-and-only credible national organization.



WWI was still raging in June, 1918 when the National Council of Women held their annual general meeting in Brantford, Ontario.

1917 had been a bitterly divisive year in Canada, especially among Canadian suffragists, because in order to get re-elected and pass his conscription bill, Premier Borden had concocted a Wartime Elections Act that gave the vote only to women with close relations at the Front.

Suffrage was still a key issue for the National Council of Women during the WWI years, and many provinces, including Ontario, granted the provincial franchise to women during that time, although many society ladies put aside their suffrage advocacy for 'patriotic work.'

I am writing about this bizarre business in a book called Service and Disservice, about the Canadian suffragists and their dubious involvement in the 1917 Conscription Election. It's the follow up to Furies Cross the Mersey, about the British Invasion of Suffragists to Canada in 1911/12.

It was all a bit of a mess, well, a HUGE mess, and in the 1918 Yearbook of the National Council of Women most of the women's societies agreed to let sleeping dogs lie and avoid re-hashing, in their annual reports, any of the raw emotion, bent logic, viciousness and invective that had characterized the Canadian women's movement the final months of 1917.

The Canadian Suffrage Association, led by Dr. Margaret Gordon, a pacifist, had come out vocally against this limited suffrage ploy of Premier Borden's Union Government.  Dr. Gordon called the Wartime Elections Act 'a  disenfranchisement act.'

So, too,  had the Montreal Suffrage Association, under Carrie Derick, although they were 'warmly in favour of compulsory national service.'

(The MSA was careful not to use the word Conscription in their propaganda.  That was a hot-button word in Quebec.)

 The Montreal Local Council of Women had been greatly divided over this Wartime Elections Act. Their President, Dr. Grace Ritchie England suffered an impeachment hearing over her support of Liberal Sir Wilfrid Laurier in the 1917 election, and for a September, 1917 letter to the Press she co-authored with Mme Dandurand, an elite French woman, calling the Wartime Elections Act 'an insult to women'.

But, you wouldn't know it by the  annual reports filed in 1918 National Council of Women  Yearbook.

Only the National Equal Franchise Union, whose President Constance Hamilton had loudly supported Borden's Union Government and this limited suffrage re-election ploy, made mention of dissent within the ranks over the issue, while claiming that all ended well with everyone coming together in a spirit of patriotism.

(Not true, of course.)

The Montreal Local Council avoided discussing the Conscription Election, focusing, in its report, on its work to care and control (and  put away on special farms) the feeble-minded of society, Carrie Derick's pet project. She was a McGill Botanist/Geneticist and a eugenics evangelist.

In the 1918 report, the Montreal Local Council of Women also mentioned  that they distributed Conscription literature around town, in both languages, at the request of the Federal Government.


By 1918, most women in Canada had won the right to vote federally. This was the silver lining in the dark, undemocratic cloud of the very cynical, anti-Quebec and anti-immigrant Wartime Elections Act, that made hypocrites of so many of the society ladies/social reformers of Canada.

The Montreal Suffrage Association uses the Suffrage Play "How the Vote was Won" as a war fundraiser. Although pledging the MSA to war work almost immediately,"We have been asking for our rights, now it is time to do our duty" in September, 1914, President Carrie Derick never gave up the suffrage cause, putting pressure on Borden in May 1917, demanding the Federal Vote for Women: "We have been doing our duty, now it is time to have our rights." 

She tried to organize a nation-wide deputation to Borden that month, but the PM, at the end of May, suddenly promised all Canadian women the federal vote.

 Then, in September, Borden broke his promise, after receiving 'disturbing intelligence from out West,' revealing that citizens in many constituencies weren't likely to vote along patriotic lines. This according to a representative of the Montreal Suffrage Association. 

Borden's main man, Arthur Meighan, was just as afraid of the anti-war sentiment in Quebec, but Borden couldn't come out and say that. He told  Quebec Suffrage Leaders that he couldn't give ALL Canadian women the vote in 1917 until he changed the laws regarding citizenship for new Canadians. As it stood, a female immigrant was granted Canadian citizenship directly upon marriage to a citizen.

"You don't appreciate the pickle I am in," says Borden to a French suffragist organization in September,1917 defending his Wartime Elections Act that gave only women with men at the Front the right to vote in the December federal election, ensuring that Borden would win the election and that his Conscription Bill would pass.  (He wanted 100,000 conscripts. In 1916 he had asked for 500,000 recruits and the MLCW formally endorsed mandatory overseas service to fill that huge quota, about 1/8th of all the men in Canada!)

Here's a direct translation: "Before women have the vote, we must establish what quality of citizen she is." And some suffragists in Canada bought it. Oy.

Here's the entry for the Canadian Suffrage Association for 1918. It all sounds so very familiar, doesn't it?

CANADIAN SUFFRAGE ASSOCIATION. Margaret Johnston, Recording Secretary.

The many long years of steady educational spade work, together with deputations to Parliament and the bringing of world-famous speakers to Canada by this Association, was undoubtedly the means which resulted in such glorious victories for the cause of Suffrage, as Canada has had during the past two years.

 A movement gathers weight and rapidity, as it grows, and finally it is able to sweep aside obstacles which obstruct its progress, and to "carry on," by its own momentum. The women's suffrage movement has undoubtedly reached the crest of the wave sooner, because of the war, than it might otherwise have done, but had not the foundations been laid secure and sound on the rock bed of Justice, supported by an educated public opinion, no parliamentary action could have taken place.

Naturally, since the war broke out, the energies of the Canadian Suffrage Association had to be diverted into many channels, for it was imperative to loyal citizens that they do patriotic work, both as an Association and as individual members.

 No new Associations, therefore, have been formed since Ontario went "Over the Top" for Suffrage, but we felt that the Rubicon had been crossed, which was soon shown by the Federal Amendment following so quickly in its wake. 

No longer, do we hear the old slogan of Anti-Suffragism, "A woman's place is in the home," for this terrible world war has conclusively proven that "A woman's place is wherever she can be to serve humanity." 

This Association has contributed, through the personal work of its leaders, much that is basic in the making of Democratic opinion in Canada. 

We are too close to the life-work of Dr. Emily Stowe, Dr. Stowe Gullen, Mrs. Flora MacD. Denison, Dr. James L. Hughes and Dr. Margaret Gordon, our five National presidents, to estimate the scope and true value of their work—history will tell the story—but The National Council of Women know the long hard struggle, the many years of intensive work which were necessary, before Woman's Suffrage became a plank in their platform. 

A man-made nation, emphasizing the combative attributes of the male sex and glorying in the ideal of power through might, has launched the human race into a bloody struggle that staggers the imagination, and dazes, almost to madness, the human mind. 

Nations are recognizing that the co-operation of women is necessary, and that the ideal, for which, to-day, the Allies are staking their all, is the same old ideal on which the Women's Suffrage Movement was founded. 

When the Union Government invited many of the representative women to present themselves at Ottawa, to discuss policies for the nation's welfare, our national president. Dr. Margaret Gordon, was asked to represent us. 

(Editor: This is news to me. It is said that 4 leading women, including Mrs. L. A Hamilton of the National Equal Franchise League and Mrs. Torrington of the National Council of Women,visited Borden in Ottawa in early August, 1917. Earlier, he had sent them telegrams, asking them to poll their nation-wide memberships to see if he would win the election if women got the vote. The answer was NO. In my book, I suggest that Mrs. Hamilton, who was convenor for the immigration committee on the National Council of Women, gave Borden the idea of limited suffrage, although Nellie McClung generally gets the credit for this.) 

This notable gathering bore testimony to the truth of the vision of the the pioneers, whose efforts laid the foundation on which has been reared that great modern structure which the President of the United States epitomized when he said, "We must make the world safe for Democracy." 

Though the Canadian Suffrage Association has been in the thick of the fight for over a third of a century, it is not going to rest because of victories won. Our work will not be finished, until women and men, throughout Canada, shall meet on the democratic ground of political equality, for on that foundation, and that only, can a real Democracy be built.

HERE'S a tidbit by Mrs. Torrington from the same yearbook.

The franchise makes women, as they are in the majority, the arbiter of the nation's destiny.

And lest we forget how religious many of these "maternal' reform-minded mostly Presbyterian women were: Mrs. Torrington again.

The future of Canada lies in the home. The victory won on the battlefield must be followed by a realization of the power of consecrated motherhood. To us it is a testing time, and surely there is not a woman to whom war does not bring its problems. Upon woman rests the responsibility, in a great measure, of the development of a higher civilization. Nor is it a time of our personal beliefs or convictions. A writer has said : "The origin of your duties is in God. The definition of your duties is found in His Law. The progressive discovery and the application of His Law is the task of humanity." I am convinced that the solving of the many social problems which we are facing will come through the spiritual touch—our being in touch with the Infinite. 

Read Suzanne Evans' Mother of Martyrs.

Wednesday, December 2, 2015

The Selfish Gene and WWI Conscription



Frances Fenwick Williams was a Montreal author and suffragist who figures large in my book Service and Disservice about the 1917 Conscription Crisis in Canada - and the iffy involvement of the Canadian suffragist movement.

It's the follow up to Furies Cross the Mersey, about the 1911/12 British Invasion of Suffragettes to Montreal, an invasion Ms. Fenwick Williams helped bring about, I suspect.

I've written about Ms. Williams a lot on this blog. She was clever and nervy - an outlier who was part of the social elite but who made fun of these people in her books.She was the daughter of a Montreal stock market official and from a distinguished Nova Scotia family.

Her second novel, A Soul on Fire was published in 1915 when she sitting on the Executive of Board of Directors of the Montreal Suffrage Association, although she wasn't a social reformer like her co-members.

Frances Fenwick Williams, about 30 years old, was an 'equal rights' suffragist, not a 'maternal' suffragist.

 She was married in 1910  but was estranged from her American husband.

Being married gave FFW the right to be a member of the MSA.  Young single women were not invited into the Montreal suffrage movement. They were too 'excitable.'

FFW was a bit like the famed American author Edith Wharton, if you think about it, but she was not nearly as good a novelist. A critique of her 1915 novel, A Soul on Fire, claimed the characters didn't resemble any  in real life.

Hmm. Ivy Compton Burnett was a Dame Commander of the British Empire, Post-War novelist and member of the Women's Writers Suffrage League.  FFW went to London in 1912 to visit with the suffragettes. And, then, she joined the very 'sane' and 'reasonable' Montreal Suffrage Association, as a kind of mole.

FFW liked to give speeches. She was an able debater at the February, 1913 Montreal Suffrage Exhibit. Her speech is in my book Furies Cross the Mersey.

During  the 1917  Conscription Crisis, she was there when Borden needed her, giving a speech in Montreal on the first day of December, a day after riots in Sherbrooke, Quebec among other towns.

Premier Borden (or people in his office) deliberately tried to stir up trouble in Quebec, pitting Anglo against Francophone, and Fenwick Williams was one of the willing pawns, it seems.

"I am a suffragist, a socialist and half a soldier," she told the 100 ladies assembled at the 1917 rally. She also said she had no political affiliation but was for the Union government because it was the closest thing you can get to a non-partisan government.

She said anyone against the Union Government and Conscription was a  "Traitor to the Dead," a phrase that made the headline the next day.

She pledged to give another speech to a larger crowd of women within the week, but the Halifax explosion happened and stole the headlines."The enemy is at the gates,"said one such headline in the Montreal Gazette.

(Grace Richie England, Montreal born President of the Montreal Council of Women, refused to get caught up in Borden's shenanigans and stumped for Sir Wilfrid Laurier and suffered an impeachment hearing in 1918 for her troubles.)

At least FFW wasn't a hyprocrit like so many of the other Canadian suffragists during WWI. In May 1913, at the AGM of the National Council of Women in Montreal, Mrs.Philip Snowden, moderate suffragist from England spoke. The gist of her speech according to the Montreal Gazette: "That the power of women's vote in politics would be to glorify the value of human life over property."

Well, the Conscription Crisis in Canada proved this wrong, didn't it? Most suffragists were happy to help Borden get his 500,000 new recruits and send virtually every able-bodied young man in the country to the Front.

Why? So that their own sons, already at the Front, would have a better chance of surviving.

The Selfish Gene trumps principles every time.

In 1913, Fenwick Williams wrote a piece in her column The Feminist, called Women and War  stating: "It is generally believed that since women don't take part in military actions that they are opposed to war. It would be a similar thing to say that since men don't take part in Spring Cleaning, that they are opposed to it."

But she also wrote this 1917 war poem that seems to show two enemy soldiers dying together.

Before Verdun
By FRANCES FENWICK WILLIAMS

No prayer can help, no agony atone,
As I came into life I go  - alone!

Another man is lying by my side,
Another, caught in death's fast-brimming tide.

Mine was the hand that struck his life away,
And his the hand that laid me low today.

Yet now, as nearer draws the dreadful end,
He seems to me a brother and a friend.

What is he thinking as his life ebbs fast?
(How lonely each poor soul is at the last!)

If I could hear him speak before he dies I should not feel so desolate,  but he lies,
Silent and spent.

His lips grow slowly white.

I hate to look upon the piteous sight!



(There's more.)

Like many writers, Fenwick Williams was a jack of all writing trades: she wrote short stories, novels, poems and essays.

When the first issue of Chatelaine came out in the 1930's, Fenwick Williams was a contributor!



She also taught writing in her old age, from Montreal, but her course was a correspondence course with students from all over. Fenwick Williams called on her many society connections for this project, including Dr. MacPhail of McGill, a fellow Nova Scotian, and Ida A.R. Wylie, well-known author and suffragette activist.

 And in 1963, some  students actually put on one of her plays.


Friday, November 27, 2015

Colville, Bibin and Soho Sojourns


Last week at this time I was in Soho, New York, my last day and we wondered the art galleries and decadent high fashion boutiques.

I took a picture of this painting by Drago Bibin, 'cuz I liked it and it reminded me of this famous painting by Colville, stuck in a corner of the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts


Well, need I explain why?

Here's a link to the other paintings by Bibin on the Arcadia Gallery website. Bibin likes to paint raunchy rooms.


Speaking of raunchy rooms, the first day we got to New York we went to the Tenement Museum. My friend got a kick out of the fact they made a museum out of a really, really run down building.

(I subsequently sent her links to two theses about the tenement museum.)

Being from Montreal, it's not like we hadn't seen these kind of buildings before, especially in the McGill Student Ghetto in the 70's... but these hovels, rented out to students, are all now super-gentrified.

Anyway, I snapped the Colville a couple of years ago and was surprised to see such an iconic painting placed beside the elevators, in the basement, like an afterthought.

But, then, at MOMA, where we spent the middle day of our three day trip, the iconic Wyeth with the crippled girl in the field and the house on the hill  is in a corridor.

Pictures of the inside of the Tenement Museum are forbidden, but I have this pic from a 1910 Technical World magazine of a typical NY City tenement. I found that article while researching Threshold Girl and my other books about Montreal in the 1910 era.


"Windowless Hall."

In Montreal, windowless apartments were banned, but families lived in them anyway. My ebook Furies Cross the Mersey, about the Suffragists of Montreal explains it all in a scene at Julia Parker Drummond's Sherbrooke Street Mansion.

The tour leader at the Tenement Museum explained that these poor immigrant families in NY tenements were proud, hardworking, and often obsessed with cleanliness.

Thursday, November 26, 2015

A Worry Upon the Opening of McGill's Royal Victoria Women's College

Ethel Hurlbatt, British-born Warden of McGil's RVC women's college in early part of the 20th century. From McGill Archives.


I've written a great deal about McGill's Royal Victoria College on this blog.

Much of the information I used comes from a trio of McGill theses and Margaret Gillett's book, We Walked Very Warily, about McGill's women pioneers.

Indeed, for my ebook Furies Cross the Mersey, about the British Invasion of Suffragettes to Montreal in 1911/12, I created two fictional characters who are RVC co-eds. And, I describe the workings of the college in some detail.

 Ethel Hurlbatt, Warden of the Royal Victoria College and a fan of  Emmeline Pankhurst, is a key character in my ebook, as well.

I lately happened upon an odd, little publication on Google.

It's the Metropolitain, a short lived, late-Victorian era tabloid aimed at Montreal's English elite, much like the even shorter-lived Saturday Mirror from 1913.

Right away, I stumbled upon an interesting editorial about the Dreyfus Affair, where the French are described as mercurial. But another editorial from 1897 really caught my eye.


This editorial, commenting on the brand new Royal Victoria Women's College at McGill, does not question the value of women's education or mock women's intellectual ability.

 All the writer wonders about is whether there will be jobs for these mostly middle class women graduates.

As it happened, there were  jobs for many of  the RVC graduates. Well, only ONE job, really: teaching.


Tennis team RVC. Tennis was the first club created by the Co-Eds,  a tool to meet men and to strengthen the body against over studying.


The immigration boom  of 1910-13 and post WWI immigration created a constant need for new teachers in the era, since married women weren't allowed to work.

You didn't need a college degree to be a teacher, just a diploma, but if you had a college degree you could become a Principal almost immediately.

My ebook Threshold Girl, based on real letters from the 1910 period, covers that issue. Threshold Girl is about 3 women teachers, my husband's ancestors, working in the poorer areas of Montreal.

(As it happens, a hell of a lot happened technologically between 1897 and 1913; the auto, motion pictures, Marconi's wireless, and mass immigration to Canada enabled by a new hardy strain of wheat, Marquis; that provoked a paradigm shift in the ways Canadians thought and felt about the world.)


The Metropolitain 
September 11,1897,



The Royal Victoria College for Women, the splendid gift of Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal, rapidly approaches completion.

This institution will mark a new departure in the education of our girls.

Whether the results will be all that will be expected may be fairly open to doubt.

We can hardly be said to have a leisured class in Canada.

We are all working, in one form or another, for a living.

We are working, industrious people concerned with the practical problems of life.

Most of our young girls, after receiving an ordinary education, are expected to provide for themselves in life.

I do not suppose that 3 percent of our population can afford to keep their daughters at home, leading the lives of ladies with nothing more serious to do than dress and engage in the social functions of local society.

We do not doubt that many parents will make a supreme effort to send their daughters to Royal Victoria college when it is opened.

The institution will give a course of instruction equal to that of Arts at McGill University

In the case of rich parents, there will be the pleasant feeling that their daughter has been rendered thoroughly fit for the station that she will inhabit as head of an establishment of her own in the course of time.

But the rich girls will be as scarce as can be imagined and what may be expected in the case of 99 out of 100 girls who, though educated with broadened notions of life, with fastidious tastes, with larger demands nurtured by genteel companionship, leave the college to take their place in life?

We are an agriculture and industrious people.

Our girls find ready employment at manual forms of labour.

We provide a little clerical work for them, but this is grudgingly given.

What field is there in Canada for the hundreds of bright young intellects being  turned out of the Royal Victoria College from time to time?

(And the article goes on in this vein for many more paragraphs: What work for these elevated ladies of the middle class?)




Sunday, November 22, 2015

Zola, Picasso, Keira and Thoughts about Scary Times


When I arrived back in Montreal from my 4 day trip to New York City, the customs officer asked me what I had done on my short vacation.

I'm never sure what to say in these circumstances, so I said the obvious: " I went to a show, ate at a lot of different restaurants, and window shopped...ah...fantasy shopped." I added that  make sure he understood that I didn't buy anything. Rien. Nada. Zip.

"So you went up and down Fifth Avenue but didn't purchase anything?" he asked, slightly skeptical.

"Soho." I replied. "I shopped in Soho." And then I added, "Do you know the prices? A T-shirt (and I tugged at the collar of my Costco sweater for effect)"Can cost 500 dollars!"

"You didn't buy one," he asked again.

"No."

Maybe I should be flattered that a customs officer thinks I have the moolah to put down on 850 US dollars on a Burberry scarf (of dubious beauty) considering my home-made dye job and face that has never seen Botox and Value Village Bohemian attire, better suited, I know, to a 22 year old theatre-type..

But I guess he was just doing his job.

A New York trip to me, these days, is eating and walking, walking and eating some more. It's about soaking up atmosphere. Thank goodness, this past week, the unsettled weather complied.

 Hippy Me.

My old friend K. and I had planned the trip two months ago. She chose the dates as she works on Bay Street in Toronto and she could get those days off.

The Paris terrorist attacks happened on the Friday before. We expected increased security at the airport and in the city but all we noticed was severe-looking armed militia in front of the Christmas Tree being erected at Rockefeller Center.

K and I have  known each other since high school and we are so finely attuned that she understood immediately when I said that the new World Trade Center thingy, where we first emerged, looks like the Air Canada Pavilion at Expo67.

K. who walks 45 minutes to and back from her office every day stood up to the hours of walking  better than I.  Treadmilling for 15 minutes every second day doesn't cut it for New York. My body ached everywhere by night time.

But that's a small price to play for such pleasure.

 Picasso's scandalous Demoiselles D'Avignon caught the feeling of scary 1900 change. Today it's a great selfie prop.

 My vacation nails matched the dessert at the 2 Michelin Star Modern Restaurant at MOMA. Our one fancy meal in New York City, complemented by the fact a major celebrity of our generation was seated two tables down. Otherwise, it was an Italian bistro on Mulberry Street, a French bakery with communal tables in Soho serving updated health-food, sushi at Whole Foods at Union Square (I think)a large juice bar filled with young college student types, pastries at Ferraro's Italian Soda Fountain place and lots of breakfasts at the Landmark Diner across from our hotel in Soho.
Mulberry Street from our sidewalk table.

Cartoon inspiration


I've been to New York City on only three other occasions.

The first time was in 1982, when I went with another friend by overnight train to visit K who was going to fashion school in Manhattan.

She shared a small apartment in Queens with a med student and aspiring actress near that French Connection overhead railroad.

I remember being struck by the signs for bomb shelters everywhere in the shabby development, a left-over from the Cold War and something not seen in Canada.

We all went to the Met Museum on that trip and ate at three restaurants, suggestions from a book K had: The Cheapest Eats in New York City.

I recall only one of the places, a steak and ribs grill near Columbia University.

Oh, and we tried to go to Chippendale's.

A beautiful broad-shouldered young man in a tuxedo opened our taxi door, and I recall a look of embarrassment in his eyes. We were the same age, after all.

We didn't get into the show. It was an All-Girl's night and my companion was a man.

I visited NY for the second time in 1998, this time with my young family, my husband and two boys aged 10 and 13.

My husband's nephew from Philly drove us around the city and through Time's Square one autumn day. My kids weren't impressed with NY. They called it "garbage city." (I guess it was dirty.)

The nephew had worked as a courrier and knew the Big Apple back to front. He told us how he made deliveries to the World Trade Center and how entire floors were empty, just wires and concrete.

We spent only a few hours driving around. We parked near an entrance to Central Park. I wanted us all to go to the Natural History Museum. The all-male group outvoted me. They wanted to go to the top of the World Trade Center.

The very top, out in the open...with all the German tourists.

I had a paralyzing fit of vertigo up there. My youngest son laughed at me, "There's two fences to keep you from falling," he pointed out. But my older, more understanding son gently guided me back down the escalator to the safety of glassed-in windows on the floor below.

That's the very same vacation where we witnessed 'a naked Amishman' running through a field, so all was not wasted.

The second to last time I went to NY was just 5 years ago in 2010. 9/11 and all that.  I went with my younger son's girlfriend, just for a day.

I wanted to see the Roundabout Theatre's production of Mrs. Warren's Profession with Cherry Jones and Sally Hawkins. At the American Airline Theatre.

She picked the date, November 17, the same date as this year's trip.

This was a very girlie occasion. We took a Sex in the City Bus Tour, visiting the Magnolia Bakery and some Sex Shoppe, etc.

The next day before catching the plane we took a caleche through Central Park, the weather was crisp and sunny, and then we walked a bit and ate at the Boathouse.



Pictures of the trip are still plastered on her Facebook page.


At the Boathouse in Central Park, November 2010.


It was a short but sweet interlude, My now daughter-in-law loved Central Park and wants to go back some day with my son, her husband. They honeymooned in Paris.


Anyway, this time it was the Picasso Sculpture Exhibit at MOMA with my high school friend, the one who remembers Expo67 as clearly as I do.

Expo67, as I have written on this blog, was my introduction to worldiness and art.

At Expo, there was a sculpture garden in the back of the American Pavilion filled with "Cezanne-inspired" sculpture. No doubt there were a couple of Picasso sculptures there,too.

I loved that place. I loved the sculpture, the grass and the peace and quiet away from the crowds.

I have always thought this was because I had some kind of natural affinity for this style of modern art, but this past week, while walking through MOMA, I had an epiphany.

These Picasso Sculptures were the inspiration for many a television cartoonist in the middle of the 20th century.

I grew up watching these cartoons.

No wonder I could relate so much!

On this NY trip, we saw Keira Knightley in Thérèse Raquin, her Broadway debut at Studio 54. The play has received mediocre reviews, but I  enjoyed it a great deal.

I'm a Zola know-it-all and a huge Keira fan.

Some critics think the Zola play, about a frustrated borgeois French girl, is a bit irrelevant and out-moded, but I see the universal aspects in it.

And I'm not alone: Zola is one of the favorite downloads on litteratureaudio.com.

And the acting all-around is terrific.

If I want to see Keira Knightley looking fabulously dressed, I'll re-watch Anna Karenina or the Duchess.

My friend, K, enjoyed it too. As we walked down Broadway, she remarked, "You know, after 9-11 people thought NY would never be the same, But, look. It's even better than before. I hope the same happens for Paris."

K has been to Paris 4 times, a pleasure I have not had once.

Which brings me to 9/11.

On September 11, 2001 I was working in downtown Montreal,  for a company run by people from France.

When the first plane hit the Twin Towers the guy at the desk behind me saw it on his laptop. We wanted to go downstairs to the 'bar' and watch the news coverage.

The officer manager said "NO" at first. "So, what," she said. "Paris had worse during the War."

"But, this is going to change the world," I told her-  not realizing how true that was. I wanted to get out of that skyscaper downtown and go home to the 'burbs' and be with my two boys.

We did go downstairs to watch the news and we all left the office early.  We didn't care what our boss thought.

I'm wondering what she is feeling today, this French woman from Paris. Well, I can imagine.




Thursday, November 5, 2015

A Canada's History Webinar and a tale of dueling Cabinet Photos

I took this from Maclean's website that had some great articles on the new Trudeau cabinet. "Because it's 2015."


Must say, Justin Trudeau's new cabinet is inspiring. I don't want to get too inspired, lest I set myself up for disappointment, but when you consider that Margaret Thatcher had no women at all in her cabinets (she wanted to remain the only women in an group photo) this official picture, alone, is a great thing, an important moment in history.

Men and women, young and old.

Thatcher Cabinet 1989

I was also impressed by the lyrical notes of red in a sea of blue and gray in the official photo.

Yesterday evening I participated in a short but sweet webinar given by Canada's History Magazine, with the guest 'speaker' being Rose Fine-Meyer.

Rose Fine-Meyer, a distinguished OISE educator, gave a presentation on how to use community resources to dig out info about women's history. Right up my alley. The webinar was aimed at teachers and researchers.

Rose Fine-Meyer’s presentation, How Community Influences the Teaching of Women's History in the Classroom.

Fine-Meyer acknowledged that anyone 'tuning in' to her talk had probably torn themselves away from the TV and the coverage of the day's events in Ottawa, Justin Trudeau's swearing in.

After the presentation there was time for a few questions and I asked my Valverde one. Should teachers look at the dark side of women's history, like Mariana Valverde does with her book on the Purity Movement?

Fine-Meyer replied that teachers like to highlight the positive because they wanted to inspire their students, although there was a place for the other. (I am paraphrasing.)

I'm writing Service and Disservice, about the Canadian suffragists and their iffy involvement in the 1917 Conscription Crisis.

It's a follow up to Furies Cross the Mersey, about the invasion of UK suffragettes to Canada in 1912/13.

Her remark brought to mind the 1909 article I had read and republished on my old website, called Moral Enthusiasm from Education Foundations Magazine.

The author, Arthur C. Call  writes about 'what it is to be a hero' and how heroes inspire. He uses the examples of Columbus and the Norsemen,and Buddha, Ralph Waldo Emerson, DaVinci and Charlemagne. Half of these example, all men, can be described as blood-thirsty criminals. Columbus committed genocide on the gentle people of Hispanola; The Norsemen (winners in the great Darwinian contest) slew the monks of Ireland; Charlemagne in the name of Christ hacked off the heads of all the pagan leadership, 7,000 I think the number is. Nice people!

If these are heroes, they are heroes with a river of blood on their hands.

My problem with promoting the positive in history, or only telling the ugly stories from the victims' point of view (ie. Residential Schools) is that we never learn that it's not only bad people who do bad things; good people do bad things too, and sometimes merely by being passive.  See McCarthyism, etc.etc.

That's such an important lesson to learn in a democracy.

But, even in my genealogy writing group, where great Canadian history is dug up every month by exploring family history, the stories got much better when the group leader suggested it's  fun when people explore the dark side of their ancestors.

If you want the good side, all you have to do is go to the obituary :) For the other, you have to do some detailed detective work.

PS: in her presentation Fine-Meyer touched upon the suffrage movement in Canada, with a pic of Emily Howard Stowe and that 'iconic' image of Christable Pankhurst and Annie Kenney holding a huge sign VOTES FOR WOMEN.

That's the second time I saw that same image used in the Canadian context, for lack of a better one from Canada. (The first time was for a feature on Women's Soccer this summer.)

I've often published an image from the Toronto World on this blog, explaining that it is the ONLY picture of Canadian suffragists marching that you will ever see. (It is from the 1913, the giant march in Washington and shows the Canadian delegation, made up of August Stowe-Gullen, Emily's daughter, and other Ontario suffragists, all older women.)

An article in the Ottawa paper about Rosalie Jones and her suffrage tramp. She inspired some young Montrealers to propose a similar tramp to Ottawa. That inspired the Montreal elite to start a suffrage organization on the jump...they didn't want this kind of thing happening in Canada. No march happened from Montreal to Ottawa, so no pictures exist of real Canadian suffagettes marching. 

The reason why the Pankhust/Kenney picture is iconic is because they are young women. Canada did not allow young women to participate in our suffrage movement.

Too 'exciteable.'

This Canada's History webinar was the forth in a series of seven on the subject of women in Canadian history.

The Enlargement of Moral Enthusiasms



You were led by these subtle spiritual forces to a finer heroic selfhood.

For example, you got in touch with the Norseman and he was idealized before you. You saw yourself adventurous, fearless, wild. You heart would pour out sagas to the undying ages. You looked upon the mound builders, you became a toiler. But when Columbus came on the scene your courage arose, your perseverance and industry increased. You became willing to risk for the faith you held.

Perhaps you read of Buddha and the genuine peace he offers to one third of humanity. You learned, as others have done certain stock things about Socrates. But upon closer relation with this greatest of Sophists, you began to catch the scholar's enthusiasm.

You learned of Charlemagne, and let the soldier rise in you, the thirst for power.
You may have sat at the feet of Francis, the sweet saint of Assisi and felt you soul warmed at the heart.

You may have contemplated Da Vinci, and become lost in wonder before this greatest mind of all minds.

You learned about Darwin. You learned that Darwin has rarely been highly thought of by the ministers. But the more you learned of the man the more you were able to rise above suffering, the more you sat in his study and learned the value of little things.

Perhaps finally you came to Ralph Waldo Emerson, the American Plato, and beheld how he supplemented Buddha's asceticism in you..
Abridged
Arthur C. Call form Educational Foundations Magazine 1909

Sunday, November 1, 2015

The Suffragettes: Theatre and Politics..

Caroline Kenney, sister of Pankhurst militant, Annie Kenney, came to Montreal and tried to start up a militant suffrage organization.

In October, 1913, Flora Macdonald Denison, President of the Canadian Suffrage Association, arrived back from a 6 month tour of Europe and gave a rousing speech in praise of Emmeline Pankhurst.

Denison had gone to Europe specifically to attend a meeting of the International Women's Suffrage Alliance in Bucharest in June and she reported on it in her Toronto World column.

On her way back home, she stopped in Paris and London.

In Paris she wrote about the fashions, bien sur.

In London, Denison wrote about the militant suffragettes. She was hosted there by Miss Barbara Wylie. a British militant who had just returned from Canada.

Wylie had tried to stir up 'suffragette' passions in that country, with very limited success.

Ontario suffragists in Washington, March, 1913, Denison and Dr. Gordon, and Yorkshire born Constance Hamilton who would lead a coup against Canadian born Denison the next year and end up helping Premier Bordon fix the 1917 Conscription Election with his infamous Wartime Elections Act which gave the vote only to women with men at the Front.

Wylie took Denison to see two rallies in one day; one with Annie Kenney at the London Pavilion (where Emmeline showed up and was descended on by police) and one in the East End, where a weakened Sylvia Pankhurst spoke, but escaped the police.

Now, in October, 1913 Toronto appearance, Denison probably should have stuck to a business-only speech about the Bucharest Conference, where they danced around the issue of militancy. Many women in her organization had been out to get her for a while. Instead, she talked about Mrs. Pankhurst, obviously infused with the warrior spirit.

She said that a great play was unfolding in England, with Pankhurst as the heroine and the British government as both the villain and the clown.

Mrs. Pankhurst arriving in Montreal in December, 1911, being met by Dr. Grace Ritchie England, the President of the Montreal Council of Women. She would speak in Toronto a few days later, hosted by Flora Macdonald Denison.

I personally love that statement. In Furies Cross the Mersey, by book about the invasion of militant suffragettes to Canada in 1912/13, I explore the issue of Pankhurst and her brand of suffrage 'theatre.' Or, more precisely, I have a character explore it.

Kathleen Weller, a Manchester-born Montrealer on the Executive of the Montreal Suffrage Association, was in London visiting the suffragettes at the same time as Denison, and she also was moved to give a rousing speech supporting Pankhurst upon her return to the city.

This was against the policy of the MSA, that claimed to be 'sane' and 'reasonable' and was going about 'a peaceful education of the people'.

The movie Suffragette, directed by Sarah Gavron, starring Meryl Streep as Emmeline Pankhurst and Carrie Mulligan as a working class suffragette, is interesting and beautifully acted and it recreates some famous suffragette incidents, but the movie fails to explore this 'theatre' angle.